History of Vietnam
Vietnam - a name that sounds familiar to a lot of tourists for its
thousand-years of history, with long and heroic poems that bringing back the history
of its country founding and defending. Stone tools discovered in Thanh Hoa, Dong Nai
provinces and dated back at about 300,000 years are the earliest vestige of Vietnam prehistory.
Up to the Bronze Age, the Vietnam history made yet a big progress with the development
of 3 cultural groups. The first group (Pre - Dong Son culture) was located in the Red,
Ma and Ca rivers Deltas. The second one (Pre - Sa Huynh culture) was located in the
Southern Central Zone. And the third one was developed in the area of Mekong River Delta.
As stepping into the Iron Age, with the Dong Son culture, there appeared for the first
time in Vietnam a primitive state. lt was the Van Lang State of Hung Kings.
The year of 179 BC had marked the beginning of the period of Chinese Empires’ domination, which was lasting for 11 centuries. However throughout whole this period, Vietnamese people continuously rose up in arms for regaining the independence, started with the revolt of Hai Ba Trung (the two Trung ladies) (during the 40-43 AD) then consequently was the revolt of Ba Trieu (248 AD). Finally, with the victory upon the Nam Han invaders on theBach Dang river in 938, Ngo Quyen had put the end to almost thousand years of domination of the Northern Feudalists and regained the independence for country.
A new page of Vietnam’s history had begun at the 1Oth century. The dynasties Ngo (939-965), Dinh (968-980) and Ante - Le (980-1009) had made great efforts for strengthening the country and building up a unified State. From Xl to XIV centuries, under the reigns of Ly (1009-1225) and Tran (1226-1400) dynasties, Vietnam had become a strong state. The National independence was firmly preserved owing to the struggle of Ly Thuong Kiet against Sung invaders (1075-1077) and resistance led by Tran Hung Dao and the Kings of Tran Dynasty against the Mongol - Yuan in the years 1258, 1285 and 1288.
In early nineteen century, the French first started invasion of Vietnam and then set up its colonialist system on the land. In 1945, the global fascism collapsed, the people of Vietnam, under the leadership of President Ho Chi Minh, overtook power and declared independence on 2nd September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam came into being. In December 1945, the resistance war of the Vietnamese people against the French aggression commenced and lasted almost 9 years.
After the historical victory in May 1954, the French had to withdraw from Vietnam and as regulated by Geneva Agreement, Vietnam was temporarily divided into two parts: North and South. The war for national liberation against the US aggression ended on 30 April 1975 when the liberation troops marched into Sai Gon. The country was reunified, the name was changed into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the capital is Hanoi.
Nowadays, the Vietnamese people are bringing into full play the spirit of independence and self - determination and trying hard to build Vietnam into a powerful country and a wealthy nation, the society of equity democracy and civilization.